Ben Bikman, PhD is back to take a deep dive into new aspects of glucose metabolism, ketosis and fatty oxidation.
We also explore nuances around protein and mTOR in the context of cancer.
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————————————– Key Timestamps———————————-
05:49 We are applying the low carb ketogenic diet in bizarre ways by dumping oil into their drinks. There is no other nutritional value to the oils.
07:45 Fasted exercise stimulates glucagon.
09:37 People may be confusing gluconeogenesis with an insulinogenic effect.
10:40 If you have ketogenesis happening, you have gluconeogenesis.
14:10 True clinical hypoglycemia is remarkably uncommon.
18:22 If you have food in your gut during exercise, your body is conflicted about sending blood to your muscles or your guts.
19:57 Protein increases insulin and glucagon.
21:02 Glucagon is catabolic of fat tissue.
23:00 Glucagon activates lipolysis, increasing free fatty acids. Hormones tell the body what to do with energy.
23:54 Acetyl-CoA is the branch point of all metabolic processes. Catecholamines and glucagon counter insulin, but insulin reigns supreme.
25:40 Consuming meat or saturated fat does not create lipotoxicity or insulin resistance.
30:17 It is easier to induce insulin mediated lipotoxicity with a vegan diet than a ketogenic diet due to the high carb content.
30:43 Excess palmitate can create an excess of ceramides, as can hyperinsulinemia directly.
32:39 Triglycerides do not effect insulin sensitivity.
33:45 There are more ceramides in sedentary, obese, insulinemic individuals.
34:53 Alpha cells become insulin resistant because of a ceramide accumulation.
35:52 In type 1 diabetes, where you are not making insulin in the microenvironment, too much glucagon is produced, elevating glucose.
37:30 Both insulin and glucagon are high in type 2 diabetics. It should be one or the other.
40:15 Exogenous ketones shut down your body’s ability for hepatic ketogenesis. Pulsed exogenous ketones can be helpful with TBI or other neurological issues.
41:55 Glucagon activates processes that are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis.
44:47 As you become more fat adapted, your body becomes more efficient and ketone baseline levels drop.
44:57 Once ketones are detectible from a low carb diet, metabolic pathways have been activated and insulin is low.
47:53 You cannot store ketones if insulin is low.
51:54 Any cell that you want to maintain and grow requires mTOR. Insulin promotes mTOR activation.
52:55 Leucine is a good mTOR activator in muscle.
53:22 A cancer cell will grow with chronic mTOR activation, but it is not the cause of the cancer.
54:41 Protein consumption does not correlate to cancer incidence.
55:41 Animal products are higher in protein and we absorb more. Plants are relatively deficient in protein and we do not absorb it effectively.
59:17 Carnitine is involved in lipid transport.
01:00:41 Leucine is the most anabolic amino acid and is a ketogenic amino acid.
01:01:22 Red meat is a great source of carnitine. Carnitine accelerates ketogenesis.
01:03:55 Cold induced uncoupling can stimulate mitochondrial uncoupling in muscle.
01:05:19 Ketones induce mitochondrial uncoupling in fat tissue, telling it that it is okay to waste energy.
01:08:56 Cold exposure has an immune benefit and a cognitive benefit, as well as the metabolic benefit.
01:15:39 A main cause of endotoxemia can be LPS (lipopolysaccharide). This is accelerated when your body is absorbing lipid.
01:16:47 Dietary lipid consumption increases LDL, which can bind to LPS and result in its removal through the bile duct.