Weight Loss

Does Eating Fat Make You Gain Fat?

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Does Eating Fat Make You Gain Fat? – Thomas DeLauer

Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP)

ASP is a hormone produced by adipocytes that’s produced through a process involving three proteins: C3, factor B and adipsin, which are secreted by adipocytes – it’s an adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes

ASP has a primary role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes, where it stimulates glucose uptake, increases the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and inhibits hormone-sensitive lipase activity

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide is a hormone released from the small intestine that enhances the release of insulin following the intake of food.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide is made and secreted mainly from the upper section of the small intestine from a specific type of cell known as the K cell

Its main action occurs in the pancreas where it targets beta cells, which produce insulin. It stimulates the release of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreas in order to maintain low blood sugar levels after eating

Fat vs Carb Storage

The reason people get fat is being in a caloric surplus, also known as eating more than your body needs, for an extended period of time.

There’s a process in our body that makes gaining fat from carb consumption very difficult – that process is called De Novo Lipogenesis

A recent study on overfeeding via carbs looked at this:

Study – The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Carbohydrate overfeeding increases de novo lipogenesis and fat storage, but how significant of a contribution does this actually make to body fat gain:

Researchers measured exactly how much weight the women gained from fat vs carbs

De novo lipogenesis was measured during 96 hours of overfeeding by 50% with either sucrose or glucose and during an energy balance treatment (control) in 8 lean and 5 obese women

De novo lipogenesis was 2- to 3-fold higher after overfeeding by 50% than after the control treatment in all subjects

The type of carb overfeeding (sucrose or glucose) had no significant effect on de novo lipogenesis in either subject group

They found that the carb-overfed women stored about 282 grams of body fat per day, but only 4 grams of it came from de novo lipogenesis

De novo lipogenesis accounted for only 1.4% of their fat gain

Omega 3’s & Fat Gain

If you are eating excessive amounts of DHA or EPA, these fatty acids are more likely to be incorporated into phospholipid bilayers than adipose tissue

The abundance of EPA and DHA in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is low, typically less than 0.2 for EPA and up to 1.0 mol% for DHA

An abundance of EPA and DHA in adipose tissue does not increase notably

This suggests that EPA and DHA are not preferentially stored in adipose tissue triacylglycerol long-term, rather they may be partitioned to oxidation pathways or to storage in other lipid fractions, such as phospholipids; red blood cell and plasma phospholipids have a notably higher abundance of both EPA and DHA than adipose tissue

Function

Omega-3s play important roles throughout the body as structural components of cell membranes

When dietary intake is appropriate, both EPA and DHA are common in cell membranes throughout the body (in contrast, DHA alone can be found in very high concentrations in the retina and the brain, implicating its important role in vision and general nervous system function)

Cell membranes are made up of 2 layers of a diverse group of similar-shaped molecules called phospholipids, which directly or indirectly influence nearly every aspect of a cell’s daily activity

After EPA and DHA are consumed through the diet, they are placed within a membrane phospholipid, where they can affect cellular function by promoting the fluidity, flexibility, and/or the permeability of a membrane

These features are vital to numerous daily cell operations including receiving, processing, and responding to information from nearby cells and messages coming from the surrounding environment

Resources

1) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26673120
2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2958879/
3) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730128/
4) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4646500/
5)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212877815000599
6) https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/74/6/737/4737416
7) https://clinicalnutritionespen.com/article/S1751-4991(11)00006-0/pdf

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