Weight Loss

Which Meat Should You Eat? Comparing Fatty Acids of Protein (whiteboard)

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Which Meat Should You Eat? Comparing Fats (whiteboard) – Thomas DeLauer

Beef (per 100g)

Calories: ~255
Fat: 20g
Saturated: 7.7g
Monounsaturated: 8.8g
Polyunsaturated: 0.5g
Omega 3: 48mg
Omega 6: 435mg
6 to 3 ratio: 9:1

Notable Fats: stearic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid

Chicken (per 100g)

Calories: ~140
Fat: 8.1g
Saturated: 2.3g
Monounsaturated: 3.6g
Polyunsaturated: 1.5g
Omega 3: 96mg
Omega 6: 1327mg
6 to 3 ratio: 13.8:1

Notable Fats: Linoleic and low content of stearic

Bison

Calories: ~145
Fat: 7.2 g
Saturated: 2.9 g
Monounsaturated: 2.8 g
Polyunsaturated: 0.3 g
Omega 3: 38 mg
Omega 6: 261 mg
6 to 3 ratio: 6.9 : 1

Notable Fats: Stearic and linolenic

Pork

Calories: ~260
Fat: 21 g
Saturated: 7.9 g
Monounsaturated: 9.4 g
Polyunsaturated: 1.9 g
Omega 3: 70 mg
Omega 6: 1670 mg
6 to 3 ratio: 23.8 : 1

Notable Fats: Oleic and palmitic acids

Monounsaturated Fats

Monounsaturated fat molecules are not saturated with hydrogen atoms – each fat molecule has only the space for one hydrogen atom

Oleic Acid – Monounsaturated Fat

Oleic acid benefits the myelin sheath as it’s one of the most common fats in myelin

Oleic acid regulates the activity of adrenoceptor signaling pathways which direct the adrenergic receptors (α- and β-adrenoceptors) that help regulate blood pressure

Oleic acid can also increase fat oxidation as it increases the expression of genes involved in fat burning

Specifically, oleic acid stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and activates the SIRT1-PGC1α transcriptional complex to modulate rates of fatty acid oxidation

Polyunsaturated Fat

In polyunsaturated fats, there are a number of spaces around each polyunsaturated fat molecule – they are not saturated with hydrogen atoms

Alpha Linolenic Acid – Polyunsaturated

ALA is an omega 3, but it’s a precursor to EPA and DHA – the conversion rate in our bodies is extremely low – often less than 1% of ALA is converted to EPA and DHA

Omega 3 vs 6 Overview – Polyunsaturated Fat

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) – main function is to produce signaling molecules called eicosanoids, which help reduce inflammation

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) – important for healthy brain development and function

Most common omega 6 is linoleic acid (LA) – LA is either burned as energy or converted into longer omega-6 fats such as arachidonic acid (ARA)

Saturated Fat

Stearic Acid – Saturated Fat

Stearic acid ingestion rapidly and robustly causes mitochondrial fusion in people –

When stearic acid levels are low, the Transferrin Receptor TfR1 activates JNK signaling, leading to ubiquitination and inhibition of Mitofusin 2 and hence mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced oxygen consumption

In the presence of stearic acid, the fatty acid molecule is covalently attached to TfR1 via a thioester bond in a post-translational modification called stearoylation, analogous to protein palmitoylation by palmitic acid

This leads to reduced JNK activation by TfR1, to mitochondrial fusion, and to elevated oxygen consumption

So stearic acid stearoylates TFR1, thereby inhibiting its activation of JNK signalling – this leads to reduced ubiquitination of mitofusin via HUWE1, thereby promoting mitochondrial fusion and function

Palmitic Acid – Saturated Fat

Palmitic acid has historically been depicted as ‘unhealthy, but a review published in Frontiers in Physiology looked at the role it plays in human health

Palmitic acid has a critical role in cellular membrane functionality by affecting their ‘flexibility’ and permeability and it forms reversible links to cell membrane proteins

Conjugated Linoleic Acid – Trans Fat

Conjugated linoleic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids containing both cis- and trans- bonds as well as double bonds

The CLA cis-9,trans-11 is mostly found in foods, whereas trans-10,cis-12 is found in supplements

Resources

1) https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/poultry-products/10049/2
2) https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/beef-products/6203/2
3) https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/pork-products/2280/2
4) https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/lamb-veal-and-game-products/10628/2
5) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10347702
6)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0889157589900793
7)https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2017.00902/full
8)https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11746-000-0156-8
9)https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.ATV.17.9.1657
10)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1853362/
11)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30087348
12) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05614-6
13) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26214738?dopt=Abstract

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